D & E – Shipping Terms

Abbreviation for “Dangerous and Hazardous” cargo.

Abbreviation for “Doing Business As.”
A legal term for conducting business under a registered name.

Abbreviation for “Destination Delivery Charge.”
A charge, based on container size, that is applied in many tariffs to cargo. This charge is considered accessorial and is added to the base ocean freight. This charge covers crane lifts off the vessel, drayage of the container within the terminal and gate fees at the terminal operation.

One leg of a move without a paying cargo load. Usually refers to repositioning an empty piece of equipment

Deadweight Cargo
A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 40 cubic feet.

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT)
The number of tons of 2,240 pounds that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces “light” and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the “load line.” An approximate conversion ratio is 1NT = 1.7GT and 1GT = 1.5DWT.

Deconsolidation Point
where loose or other non–containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.

Deficit Weight
The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.

Delivery Instructions
Order to pick up goods at a named place and deliver them to a pier. Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land. Use is limited to a few majorU.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order.

Demurrage/Dispatch money. (Under vessel chartering terms, the amount to be paid if the ship is loading/discharging slower/faster than foreseen.)

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier’s equipment or vessel beyond the allowed free time. The free time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff. See also Detention and Per Diem.

The weight of cargo per cubic foot or other unit.

Depot, Container
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.

–The place to which a shipment is consigned.–The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.

Destination Control Statements
Various statements that the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments. The state­ments specify the authorized destinations.

Det Norske VERITAS
A Norwegian classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance.

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem.

The unloading of a container or cargo van.

DF Car
Damage–Free Car.
Boxcars equipped with special bracing material.

An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via an­other route.

Discrepancy Letter of Credit
When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a “discrepancy.” Banks will not process L/C’s which have discrepancies. They will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller and await further instructions.

An incentive payment paid by the vessel to the charterer for loading and unloading the cargo faster than agreed. Usually negotiated only in charter parties. Also called “dispatch.”

The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its contents. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of sea water.

A change made either in the route of a shipment in transit (see Reconsignment) or of the entire ship.

Carriers’ practice of dividing revenue received from rates where joint hauls are involved. This is usu­ally according to agreed formulae.

–For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline where a vessel normally ties up.–For land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.

Dock Receipt
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.

Refers to the charge assessed against the vessel for berthing at the facility or for mooring to a vessel so berthed.

Present a rate proposal to a conference meeting for adoption as a conference group rate.

Documents Against Acceptance (D/A)
Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft.

Documents Against Payment (D/P)An
indication on a draft that the documents attached are to be released to the drawee only on pay­ment.

A set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is discon­nected.

Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee.
Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.

U.S. Department of Transportation.
The executive branch department that coordinates and oversees transportation functions in the United States.

–The number of feet that the hull of a ship is beneath the surface of the water.–An unconditional order in writing, addressed by one party (drawer) to another party (drawee), requiring the draweeto pay at a fixed or determinable future date a specified sum in lawful currency to the order of a specified person.

Draft, Bank
An order issued by a seller against a purchaser; directs payment, usually through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank.

Draft, Clean
A draft to which no documents are attached.

Draft, Date
A draft that matures on a fixed date, regardless of the time of acceptance.

Draft, Discounted
A time draft under a letter of credit that has been accepted and purchased by a bank at a discount.

Draft, Sight
A draft payable on demand upon presentation.

Draft, Time
A draft that matures at a fixed or determinable time after presentation or acceptance.

A partial refund of an import fee. Refund usually results because goods are re–exported from the country that collected the fee.

The individual or firm that issues a draft and thus stands to receive payment.

Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck. Same as Cartage.

Abbreviation for “Destination Rail Freight Station.”
Same as CFS at destination, except a DRFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment.

Delay in Startup Insurance is a policy to protect the seller of a construction project from penalties if the project is not completed on time. See “Liquidated Damages.”

Dry Cargo
Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control.

Dry–Bulk Container
A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free–flowing solids in bulk. Used in con­junction with a tilt chassis or platform.

Attempting to import merchandise into a country at a price less than the fair market value, usually through subsidy by exporting country.

Any material or objects utilized to protect cargo. Examples of dunnage are blocks, boards, burlap and paper.

Dutiable Value
The amount on which an Ad Valorem or customs duty is calculated.

See Deadweight Tonnage.


Eastern Central Motor Carriers Association.

The U.S. Exporters Competitive Maritime Council. An association primarily of U.S. engineering, procurement and construction companies and their freight forwarders that was formed jointly by the Maritime Administration in 1997 to seek solutions to transportation problems and enhance the export of U.S. project cargoes.

Edge Protector
An angle piece fitted over the edge of boxes, crates, bundles and other packages to prevent the pres­sure from metal bands or other types from cutting into the package.

Abbreviation for “Electronic Data Interface.”
Generic term for transmission of transactional data between computer systems. EDI is typically via a batched transmission, usually conforming to con­sistent standards.

International data interchange standards sponsored by the United Nations. See UN/EDIFACT.

–A charge for services performed in connection with floating elevators.–Charges assessed for the handling of grain through grain elevators.

Elkins Act
An act of Congress (1903) prohibiting rebates, concession, misbilling, etc. and providing specific pen­alties for such violations.

Order to restrict the hauling of freight.

Eminent Domain
The sovereign power to take property for a necessary public use, with reasonable compensation.

Empty Repo
Contraction for Empty Repositioning.
The movement of empty containers.

A legal signature usually placed on the reverse of a draft; signifies transfer of rights from the holder to another party.

Customs documents required to clear an import shipment for entry into the general commerce of a country.

A monetary allowance to the customer for picking up or delivering at a point other than the destina­tion shown on the bill of lading. This provision is covered by tariff publication.

Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR)A
document transferring a container from one carrier to another, or to/from a terminal.

ETA, C, D, R, S
–Estimated Time of Arrival, Completion, Departure, Readiness, or Sailing–Estimated Time of Availability.
That time when a tractor/partner carrier is avail­able for dispatch.

A gas produced by many fruits and vegetables that accelerates the ripening and aging processes.

Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau.

“Ex Dec”
Contraction for “Shipper’s Export Declaration.”

Ex –“From”
When used in pricing terms such as “Ex Factory” or “Ex Dock,” it signifies that the price quoted ap­plies only at the point of origin indicated.

Notations made when the cargo is received at the carrier’s terminal or loaded aboard a vessel. They show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the bill of lading.

Abbreviation for Export–Import Bank of the United States.
An independent U.S. Government Agen­cy which facilitates exports of U.S. goods by providing loan guarantees and insurance for repayment of bank–provided export credit.

Expiry Date
Issued in connection with documents such as letters of credit, tariffs, etc. to advise that stated provi­sions will expire at a certain time.

Shipment of goods to a foreign country.

Export Declaration
A government document declaring designated goods to be shipped out of the country. To be com­pleted by the exporter and filed with the U.S. Government.

Export License
A government document which permits the “Licensee” to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.

Export Rate
A rate published on traffic moving from an interior point to a port for transshipment to a foreign country.

An Incoterm of sale meaning the seller delivers to the buyer at seller’s named premises.